Software Prototyping

 

Definitions

 

Software prototyping is the process of creating an incomplete model of the future full-featured software program, which can be used to let the users have a first idea of the completed program or allow the clients to evaluate the program.

 

Software prototyping is an information system development methodology based on building and using a model of a system for designing, implementing, testing, and installing the system.

 

The process of prototyping involves the following steps

  1. Identify basic requirements

Determine basic requirements including the input and output information desired. Details, such as security, can typically be ignored.

  1. Develop Initial Prototype

The initial prototype is developed that includes only user interfaces.

  1. Review

The customers, including end-users, examine the prototype and provide feedback on additions or changes.

  1. Revise and Enhancing the Prototype

Using the feedback both the specifications and the prototype can be improved. Negotiation about what is within the scope of the contract/product may be necessary. If changes are introduced then a repeat of steps #3 ands #4 may be needed.

 

Throwaway prototyping

Throwaway or Rapid Prototyping refers to the creation of a model that will eventually be discarded rather than becoming part of the finally delivered software. After preliminary requirements gathering is accomplished, a simple working model of the system is constructed to visually show the users what their requirements may look like when they are implemented into a finished system.

Rapid Prototyping involved creating a working model of various parts of the system at a very early stage, after a relatively short investigation. The method used in building it is usually quite informal, the most important factor being the speed with which the model is provided. The model then becomes the starting point from which users can re-examine their expectations and clarify their requirements. When this has been achieved, the prototype model is 'thrown away', and the system is formally developed based on the identified requirements.[7]

 

A software rapid prototype is a dynamic visual model providing a communication tool for customer and developer that is far more effective than either narrative prose or static visual models for portraying functionality. It has been described as:

 

Questions

 

1. Is the prototype simply the first version of the final product?

2. Will a prototype module be as easy to modify as a dataflow diagram?

3. Is the prototype to be used only to experiment with various design alternatives?

4. Are we prototyping to test the requirements specifications?

5. Will the prototype use actual data and allow the user to test what-if scenarios during demonstrations?

6. Will there be any possibility of evolving the prototype into the final product?

 

Rapid Software Prototyping - Critical Questions

 

Q. What critical objectives of software development are most effectively achieved through rapid prototyping?

 

A. Rapid prototyping is basically an analysis technique.

 

 

Q. To what extent should end users be involved in rapid prototyping?

 

A. About 50 percent of the development effort is user contributions. The users will always be present.

 

Throwaway Prototypes

 

Quick and Dirty Prototypes

 

 

Detail Design-Driven Prototypes

 

 

Nonfunctioning Mock-ups

 

 

Evolutionary Prototyping

 

  real-world data is used during prototyping

  must be modifiable

  should, in most cases, develop into the final system

Advantages of prototyping

There are many advantages to using prototyping in software development, some tangible some abstract[11].

Reduced time and costs: Prototyping can improve the quality of requirements and specifications provided to developers. Because changes cost exponentially more to implement as they are detected later in development, the early determination of what the user really wants can result in faster and less expensive software.[8]

Improved and increased user involvement: Prototyping requires user involvement and allows them to see and interact with a prototype allowing them to provide better and more complete feedback and specifications.[7] The presence of the prototype being examined by the user prevents many misunderstandings and miscommunications that occur when each side believe the other understands what they said. Since users know the problem domain better than anyone on the development team does, increased interaction can result in final product that has greater tangible and intangible quality. The final product is more likely to satisfy the users desire for look, feel and performance.

Disadvantages of prototyping

Insufficient analysis: The focus on a limited prototype can distract developers from properly analyzing the complete project. This can lead to overlooking better solutions, preparation of incomplete specifications or the conversion of limited prototypes into poorly engineered final projects that are hard to maintain. Further, since a prototype is limited in functionality it may not scale well if the prototype is used as the basis of a final deliverable, which may not be noticed if developers are to focused on building a prototype as a model.

User confusion of prototype and finished system: Users can begin to think that a prototype, intended to be thrown away, is actually a final system that merely needs to be finished or polished. This can lead them to expect the prototype to accurately model the performance of the final system when this is not the intent of the developers. Users can also become attached to features that were included in a prototype for consideration and then removed from the specification for a final system. If users are able to require all proposed features be included in the final system this can lead to feature creep. Developers can also become attached to prototypes they have spent a great deal of effort producing; this can lead to problems like attempting to convert a limited prototype into a final system when it does not have an appropriate underlying architecture.

Excessive development time of the prototype: A key property to prototyping is the fact that it is supposed to be done quickly. If the developers lose sight of this fact, they very well may try to develop a prototype that is too complex. When the prototype is thrown away the precisely developed requirements that it provides may not yield a sufficient increase in productivity to make up for the time spent developing the prototype. Users can become stuck in debates over details of the prototype, delaying implementation of the final product and holding up the development team.

Expense of implementing prototyping: the start up costs for building a development team focused on prototyping may be high. Many companies have development methodologies in place, and changing them can mean retraining, retooling, or both. Many companies tend to just jump into the prototyping without bothering to retrain their workers as much as they should.

A common problem with adopting prototyping technology is high expectations for productivity with insufficient effort behind the learning curve. In addition to training for the use of a prototyping technique, there is an often overlooked need for developing corporate and project specific underlying structure to support the technology. When this underlying structure is omitted, lower productivity can often result.[13]

 

 

Extreme programming XP

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_Programming

 

XP values

Extreme Programming initially recognized four values in 1999. A new value was added in the second edition of Extreme Programming Explained. The five values are:

Building software systems requires communicating system requirements to the developers of the system. In formal software development methodologies, this task is accomplished through documentation. Extreme Programming techniques can be viewed as methods for rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a development team. The goal is to give all developers a shared view of the system which matches the view held by the users of the system. To this end, Extreme Programming favors simple designs, common metaphors, collaboration of users and programmers, frequent verbal communication, and feedback.

Extreme Programming encourages starting with the simplest solution. Extra functionality can then be added later. The difference between this approach and more conventional system development methods is the focus on designing and coding for the needs of today instead of those of tomorrow, next week, or next month. Proponents of XP acknowledge the disadvantage that this can sometimes entail more effort tomorrow to change the system; their claim is that this is more than compensated for by the advantage of not investing in possible future requirements that might change before they become relevant. Coding and designing for uncertain future requirements implies the risk of spending resources on something that might not be needed. Related to the "communication" value, simplicity in design and coding should improve the (quality of) communication. A simple design with very simple code could be easily understood by most programmers in the team.

Within Extreme Programming, feedback relates to different dimensions of the system development:

Feedback is closely related to communication and simplicity. Flaws in the system are easily communicated by writing a unit test that proves a certain piece of code will break. The direct feedback from the system tells programmers to recode this part. A customer is able to test the system periodically according to the functional requirements (aka user stories).

Several practices embody courage. One is the commandment to always design and code for today and not for tomorrow. This is an effort to avoid getting bogged down in design and requiring a lot of effort to implement anything else. Courage enables developers to feel comfortable with refactoring their code when necessary. This means reviewing the existing system and modifying it so that future changes can be implemented more easily. Another example of courage is knowing when to throw code away: courage to remove source code that is obsolete, no matter how much effort was used to create that source code. Also, courage means persistence: A programmer might be stuck on a complex problem for an entire day, then solve the problem quickly the next day, if only they are persistent.

The respect value manifests in several ways. In Extreme Programming, team members respect each other because programmers should never commit changes that break compilation, that make existing unit-tests fail, or that otherwise delay the work of their peers. Members respect their work by always striving for high quality and seeking for the best design for the solution at hand through refactoring.

Adopting four earlier values led to respect gained from others in team. Nobody on the team should feel unappreciated or ignored. This ensures high level of motivation and encourages loyalty toward the team, and the goal of the project. This value is very dependent upon the other values, and is very much oriented toward people in a team.